What is TM?

Transpositional Modulation is at the core of our technology and products.

Transpositional Modulation (TM), a patented radio frequency waveform technology that offers dramatic bandwidth increases for existing wireless and wired networks. TM accomplishes this by enabling the simultaneous transmission of two or more distinct data paths on a single carrier signal. This effectively doubles the data rate.

This data rate increase is implemented transparently (with insignificant noise effects).
Because TM is a bits-in-bits-out method, its transparency is agnostic to, and functions well with, existing compression, encryption or coding methods. This transparency is compatible even with such complex modulations such as QAM or n-PSK.es.

Transpositional Modulation

Transpositional Modulation (TM) is the only form of modulation that is mutually transparent to other forms of modulation when used simultaneously. In effect, because of its transparency and ultra-efficient characteristics, TM allows a single carrier wave to transmit two signals instead of one as with other modulations.

Radio Signal Modulation

Radio signal modulation is the process of sculpting and molding a radio wave to carry and transmit information.

Radio-signal modulation is the process of sculpting a radio wave to carry and transmit information. The modulated radio wave is then transmitted and demodulated at the receiver’s end (i.e., the information is “understood”). With real-time data exchange and transfers, this modulation-transmission-demodulation process is performed repeatedly between the sending and receiving ends, assuming sufficient bandwidth.

Cellular phones, the Web, television and radio broadcasting, satellite communications, and the internet of things, all rely on radio-signal modulation for their existence. Improvements in modulation, coding, compression and the encryption of data allow for increases in data throughput.

A Guide to Modulation

The entire universe is immersed in electromagnetic energy, including light waves and radio waves.

Prior to the discovery and use of modulations, information over the radio was transmitted using Morse code, a wireless-telegraph style series of dots and dashes that are a result of specific-length interruptions in the carrier wave.

Significantly, that familiar sine wave is equivalent to a radio-carrier wave, also known as a naked wave, which functions like a blank sheet of paper that can be used to convey information. This wave must be changed or modulated in order to carry data. The fundamental modulation techniques are amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), phase modulation (PM) and now Transpositional Modulation (TM).

The Origins of and Advances in Modulation Technology

Before the invention of Transpositional Modulation, radio technology had only three fundamental ways of enabling a radio wave to carry information:

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

This method maps information onto a carrier wave by varying the amplitude of the carrier wave before it is transmitted. In other words, it changes the height of the carrier sine wave along its course at a fixed interval.

Frequency Modulation (FM)

This method uses steps that are fundamentally similar to AM, except the information is encoded onto the carrier wave by varying the frequency rather than the amplitude of the wave. Frequency modulation varies the interval between the peaks and troughs of a sine wave throughout its course.

Phase Modulation (PM)

This method produces a waveform very similar to that produced in FM, and is therefore often seen as a variant of FM. “Spliced sections” of an AM or FM signal (or combinations of the two) are taken and shifted strategically along a carrier wave in patterns that are recognized and decoded by the PM demodulator at the receiver’s end.

Bringing Modulation into the 21st Century

Prior to the invention of Transpositional Modulation (TM), modulation methods in the 20th century relied exclusively on the technology developed in the early- to mid-20th century. Today’s standards like PSK, FSK, ASK and QAM, among others, are simply ingenious adaptations of AM, FM or PM.

TM Technologies’ chief scientist, Richard Gerdes, invented TM which is the first fundamentally new method of data encoding and transmission since the 1930s.

understanding TM

A quick overview of our technology and how it can be implemented to provide solutions for many different applications.

Due to its unique properties and methods using advanced algorithms and digital-signal processing, TM can transmit multiple times more data than existing modulations, making it highly efficient. Even more significant, TM can coexist simultaneously in a signal transmission with the existing modulation technologies, on the same frequency and waveform, allowing one carrier wave to transmit more data for a given bandwidth.

 

How it works

Transpositional Modulation (TM)  creates inflections (subtle changes in waveform slope) in the wave. These are placed at particular points in the waveform in order to carry data bits, then changed one more time to eliminate the transmission of harmonics. The waveform changes are not normally visible in the time or frequency domain, but can still be detected and located within the modulated carrier.

The effect of the TM modulation appears “transparent” (invisible) to a conventional modulation placed on the carrier, and therefore, additional data can be sent by adding TM to a conventional modulated carrier signal with little effect on it.

To apply TM to a conventional signal, precise synchronization of time to the original carrier and symbol rate is performed, and a new signal is generated based on a TM-modulated carrier plus a regenerated conventional modulation signal with time referenced to the TM-modulated carrier. The amount of additional information that can be sent depends on the number of different inflection symbols and time positions that can be discriminated in a given signal-to-noise ratio.

The Shannon-Hartley Limit

equasion

 

TM challenges but does not violate the Shannon–Hartley theorem.

Informally referred to as Shannon’s power-efficiency limit, this revered tenet of information theory is a mathematical model that describes an absolute limit to the amount of error-free data which can be sent over a specific bandwidth in the presence of noise.

In this manner, establishing a theoretical barrier beyond which a signal cannot be sent without errors. This limit has been a foundation of communications and information theory since MIT professor Claude Shannon produced his mathematical proof of the theorem in 1948.

New digital signal processing technology combined with the development of TM’s inflection-based data encoding makes it possible to credibly challenge Shannon’s Limit.

This is because Shannon, made certain assumptions (some of them based on statistical probability and the previous work of Bill Nyquist regards Fourier Transform Analysis), regarding the character of electromagnetic waves when he created his theorem.

Digital communications science was still in its theoretical infancy at the time that Shannon formulated his theorem.

TM relies on new science and technology to transparently overlay a signal on an existing signal while remaining within its licensed bandwidth. This allows the  simultaneous re-use of spectrum and increased the capacity for information that can be transmitted. As a result this can appear to violate Shannon challenges while remaining true to his theorem.