First Generation Technology (1G)
Developed in the 1980s for voice services, the 1G wireless telephone technology is an analog telecommunications standard. The channel capacity was 30 KHz within a frequency division multiple access technique (FDMA).
Second Generation Technology (2G)
Developed in the late 1990s, 2G offered two services which were e-mail and SMS, besides the improvement of voice communication. Code division multiple access (CDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) are the two digital modulation methods that were used in this generation
Third Generation Technology (3G)
Was first launched in 1998 and developed in compliance with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 specifications. It allowed for email, wireless web based access, video and multimedia services. The 3G standard supports services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 200kbits/s. As 3G evolved it broke out into many substandards such as WiMAX, EDGE and others.
Fourth Generation Technology (4G)
Was first launched in 2007, 4G systems must comply with capabilities defined by the ITU. Generally speaking, speeds are generally less than 1Gbit/s. Applications include ammended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, HD-TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing. Predominant system in the market is currently the LTE standard.
Fifth Generation technology (5G)
- The standards for 5G have not yet been determined. However, we expect the 5G standard to “codify” in 2018-2019.
We believe it will function with and utilize:
- Extremely High Frequency Radios
- The advantage is faster data speed, but signal travel distance is reduced and cannot readily penetrate solid structures (ie. walls).
- Government approval is still needed to be able to use many of these high and ultra-high frequency bands.
- Beam Division Multiple Access (BDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) methods.
- It will likely attempt to integrate and function with other pre-existing standards like 3GPP, 4G, MIMO, WiFi and Machine to Machine (M2M) services.
- Anticipated new functionality of 5G will include internet of things, higher media availability and quality, control of remote devices, smart vehicles and smart city infrastructures.
- There is a very significant cost associated with implementing 5G.
- Customers already complain of high data rate bills
- In order for customers to be able to use 5G data rates, the rate that companies charge per Gigabit will need to be reduced.
A University of Bridgeport study concludes that current gigabyte rates will need to be reduced to 1/1000 of the present day cost level per Gigabit to be affordable.
- The exorbitant cost of 5G will come primarily from the massive infrastructural improvement which will need to occur to implement 5G in any given area.