A Guide to Modulation

The entire universe is immersed in electromagnetic energy, including light waves and radio waves.

Prior to the discovery and use of modulations, information over the radio was transmitted using Morse code, a wireless-telegraph style series of dots and dashes that are a result of specific-length interruptions in the carrier wave.

Significantly, that familiar sine wave is equivalent to a radio-carrier wave, also known as a naked wave, which functions like a blank sheet of paper that can be used to convey information. This wave must be changed or modulated in order to carry data. The fundamental modulation techniques are amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), phase modulation (PM) and now Transpositional Modulation (TM).